SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Professor Valerij Tishkov
Professor Valerij Tishkov answers questions of JSSA editor Vladimir Kozlovsky about his life, scientific career, and issues in the practice of anthropology in a modern world. A bibliography of Professor Tishkov’s works is appended.
Bocharov V. Political Anthropology
This paper is a brief introduction into the field of political anthropology as an anthropological sub-discipline. The connection of this discipline with colonialism, its scientific object, conceptual framework and research methods are investigated. The reasons, which prevented the development of political anthropology in the field of Russian humanities are explored. From the author’s point of view the anthropological approach is very useful in studying the modern political culture of Russia.
Tishkov V. New Political Anthropology
This article presents a new anthropological approach to politics and power. Giving a short review of western and russian tradition of political anthropology the author pays attention to the concept of “global ethnic landscape”. Nowadays political anthropology considers not only the problems of social history of everyday life and political economy but also the problems of “symbolic capital”, mass-media influences and informal communities as the most important elements of the political field and systems of power. Combining politics and myth poetics gives the opportunity to develope a new field of political anthropology – the field of symbolic action and influence.
SYMBOLS OF POWER
Chernetsov S. Seals in Ethiopia as Symbols of Power
The use of seals in Ethiopia was the result of correspondence between Ethiopian kings and sultans of Egypt and patriarchs of Alexandria. Later seals were used not only by Ethiopian monarchs, but regional rulers and prominent courtiers as well, where their names and titles were invariably mentioned. For long these seals were used instead of signatures of the owners. Finally seals in Ethiopia were developed into two different types: official seals of various institutions and offices, and personal signets which give the owners’ names in full.
Dmitriev S. The Standard in the Military Political Culture of the Turkic-Mongolian Nomads
This article investigates certain questions of the ideological character connected with the standard and its symbolic meaning. In particular, the questions of an identification of the political sovereignty are raised. The sources presented in the article suggest that a lost standard is equivalent to lost sovereignty.
Several questions of the military political culture connected with the standard are treated in depth, including the standard as an organizational center of the troop in the battle, the standard and color differences of the different troop subdivisions, the standard in the ritual of the beginning of war, standard sacrifice, ruling function in the course of the battle, the standard factor in war tricks, etc.
In the military political culture the standard is a sacred organizing center. In the struggle for it such a ritual action as a battle is raging.
Solovjeva O. Ceremonial Symbols of Traditional Authority and Political Socialization: Emirate of Bukhara (XIX–beginning of XX century)
To understand contemporary political and economic processes in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan one should be aware of the traditional political culture in Central Asia because tradition influenced the development of statehood in these countries.
At present ritual aspects of politics are very significant. In this context the article focuses on ceremonial symbols of traditional authority of the Emirate of Bukhara (XIX–beginning of XX century). These symbols made an impact on political socialization of the people.
Special attention is paid to an analysis of the ritual of emir’s inauguration. Its structure is divided into four main periods (untilBukhara period, Bukhara, untilSamarkand and Samarkand period). The article gives a detailed description of the attributes of the emir’s rulership connected with this ceremony.
The ritual played an important role in the policy of Bukhara. Political and nonpolitical factors affected the political socialization of the people. The ritual was the outward sign of this process and its importance depended on the levels of government hierarchy.
Golovin N., Sibirev V. Children and Election to the State Duma: about forming of the basic political attitudes
In the December 1999 the elections of the deputies of the State Duma of Russia took place. At this time the authors of this article organized the research, which was carried out in 40 school classes with the children aged between 10 and 11 years old. The research was oriented on the Saint-Petersburg and other cities and towns of the North — West Region of Russia. The analysis concerned the children’s experience with the political issues on the example of the attitudes towards the elections. The empirical material of the research consisted of 856 children’s drawings.
This article has the justification of the usage of the term “basic political preference” concerning schoolchildren in the age of the elementary school as its aim. On the basis of the social experience research method, which is grounded upon the analysis of the children’s drawings, the characteristic attributes of the process of the political identification, as well as the details of the democratic, conflict- shaping, common- sense and pragmatic political orientations of the schoolchildren are being analyzed. The illustrations to the research are present in the Internet under the following address:
Evers H.-D. Shadow Economy, Subsistence Production and Informal Sector: Economic Action beyond Market and State
The presented article is an attempt to make clear the notion “shadow economy”, treated very widely in scientific literature, and also to reveal its relation to “subsistence production” and “informal sector”. In this connection the author analyzes the discussion on shadow economy taking place in the sociological discourse. Simultaneously, this article tries to answer the question how an formal sector influences an informal one, questions concerning the scale of illegal and legal transactions and tendencies in the development of subsistence production directed to satisfaction of one’s own needs. Essential attention is paid to connection between commodity production and subsistence production and to the possibility to measure the latter. One of the important conclusions is an idea that hired labour is impossible without the main form of subsistence production, reproduction of human life, and that household production and employment in an informal sector are not marginal phenomena of economy and society.
Bochkareva V. From the History of Sociology of Entrepreneurship in Pre-revolutionary Russia
The article is dedicated to the history of researches of private enterprise in Russia before 1917. The auther explores the development of diverse formes of enterprise using the data, having been gathered by 1903.
METHODOLOGY AND METHODS OF SOCIOLOGIE
Saganenko G. Systems, Formats, and Cognitive Potential of Open Questions
This paper works out the possibility of new comparative studies based on open questions. The focus of the study is a typology of open questions. More than 20 systems and / or formats of open questions are described, the foundation of each system is explained, the examples of questions and answers are given, the cognitive potential of each system is demonstrated, and possibilities of studying social collision through comparison are elaborated.
NEW BOOKS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Damberg S., Semenkov V. “Introduction into Sociology of Art” and Methodological Problem in Branch Sociology.
Semenkov V. About epistemological values of Russian History of Sociology of Art.
In memory of Leonid Gordon