SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
"Do You Expect Changes?" E. Sokolov´s Reflections on the State of Soviet Society and Prospects of its Development (1980)
"Do You Expect Changes?" is an expert interview concerning the state of soviet society and prospects of its historical development made in 1980 by a group of Leningrad intellectuals (see Alexeyev A. Dramaturgical Sociology and Sociological Autoreflection. Vol. I. St. Petersburg: Norma, 2003). In memory of E. Sokolov, a remarkable social philosopher, A. Alexeyev presents his answers to this questionnaire. A selected bibliography of E. Sokolov?s works is appended.
HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY
Elmeev V., Dolgov V., Galaktionov A. Sociology in St. Petersburg State University: the History of Institutionalization (1985-1990)
This paper traces the history of institutionalization of sociology as an educational discipline in 1980 - 1990s related to the foundation of the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University.
Gergilov R. German Sociological Society before the First World War
This article analyses the historical process of the institutionalization of German sociology before the First World War. At that time there were two major sociological schools. The first one regarded sociology as a head of all social sciences; the second as an exact independent science. Their theoretical struggle is portrayed in the article.
Dudina V. Sociological Knowledge in the Context of Epistemological Legitimization: from the Facts Autonomy to the Discipline Autonomy.
The article discusses problems of epistemological legitimization of sociological knowledge in the context of historical development of main epistemological conceptions: from positivistic idea of facts autonomy and objectivity of methods to interpretation of social science as a specific cultural practice. Fundamental features of neo-positivistic and post-positivistic epistemological conceptions and their influence on the development of sociological knowledge are considered. "Pragmatical turn" in epistemology and methodology is analyzed. Principle of discipline autonomy is treated as a means of legitimization of sociological knowledge in conditions of rejection the ideal of detached knowledge.
Firsov B. History and Sociology: the Walls and the Bridges
The article develops the ideas of the author?s recently published book devoted to the history of Soviet sociology in the 1950s - 1980s. In particular, it examines the world of correlations between sociological and historical cognition as two leading methods of mastering reality. It is stated that historism of national sociology and sociologism of history still leave much to desire, which is not only a result of political control and ideological pressure "from above" (coercive amnesia) but a consequence of evading clashes with the past "from bottom" (conscious amnesia) during the Soviet era. The author considers the external and internal factors that gave birth to the amnesia of social sciences by stating that overcoming this dangerous phenomenon would mean instilling in Russian citizens an ability to commensurate the scales of the history of the country and the history of their daily life. The article lays down several ways toward developing organic links between sociology and history.
SOCIOLOGY OF SCIENCE
Krohn W. The Risk of (Non-)Knowledge: Concerning the Changing Functions of Science in the Knowledge Society
The paper deals with the tensions between reliability and risk in knowledge. If knowledge in the knowledge society is a basal good, then, like all (other) technical goods, it can be provided with a characteristic of quality security. It happens through certification of knowledge validity, establishing standards and norms of knowledge stocks so that they may serve as intermediate products in the process of production. Contrary to these expectations these very measures create a basis so that hypotheticalness of knowledge as expertise introduces the new risks of action, particularly because situation-specific boundary conditions can be only insufficiently simulated. In such a way the sequence of actions receives a quality of quasi-experimental scenarios that require a high degree of self-observing and additional reserves. Due to such recursive learning processes the strategies of scientific research penetrate into the knowledge society and establish a new kind of knowledge-based innovation practice. The topic of the following analysis is an increasing interrelation of trust in reliable knowledge and a draft of non-reliable research processes.
Bertrand F. Science without Object? Soviet Ethnography of 1920 - 1930s and Issues of Ethnic Categorization
The institutional, scientific and social legitimization of Soviet ethnography in 1920?1930s is treated in the article. The dominant role in this process belongs to issues of ethnic categorization as they had been constituted at the Meeting of ethnographers of Moscow and Leningrad (1929), in the role played by museums, and in N. Marr´s scientific project.
Olimpieva I. Post-soviet Heterarchies: Transformation of Big Scientific Organizations During the Period of Economic Reforms
The present paper is focused on the analysis of the phenomenon of post-socialist heterarchies´ organizational modes emerging in big post-socialist firms as adjustment to the uncertainty of external environment. By analyzing the changes taking place in big scientific organizations during the first decade of post-socialist reforms the conclusion is made about essential differences of post-soviet heterarchies as to compare them with western analogues. The main distinguishing feature of Russian heterarchies is their informal character, prevailing of informal practices in interrelations within organizations as well as with side partners. It is assumed that the differences between western and Russian heterarchies are determined by the differences in external environment. In the developed economies the emergence of heterarchies are caused by extremely volatility of markets and high rapidity of technological change while post-soviet heterarchies are the reaction of organizations to institutional uncertainty immanent to the period of transformation. This is informal character of heterarchies which provides their effectiveness as organizational modes (at least during the first period of reforms), creating possibility for maneuver so necessary for survival in post-soviet transformational crisis. Although informality is a "patrimonial" feature of all post-socialist heterarchies, we assume however that in Russia it manifests itself more explicitly which is caused by the higher level of institutional uncertainty, more intensive (to compare with other eastern European countries) processes of deformalisation of the rules of economic interactions, by dominating of informal relations over formal regulations
Zorin V. From National to Ethnocultural Policy: Problems of Conceptual and Practical Development (1990 - 2002)
The paper treats the problem of modernization of the state conception of the national policy in the direction of ethnocultural policy. The politics of the 1990 - 2000s bring into light such aspects of this policy as relations between federal centre and subjects of Russian Federation, the rehabilitation of the repressed people, the formation of national and regional elites, the preservation of national-territorial form of ethnic problems resolution, the maintenance of national-cultural autonomy, the support of autochtonous minorities.
Makarova G.I. The modern problems of development of Russian language and Russian culture in national republics of Russia (on materials of the expert interviews which have been carried out in the Republic of Tatarstan)
The change of the status of national cultures in Tatarstan occurred in the 1990 - 2000s has resulted in appearance of a number of problems with development of Russian language and Russian culture. The interviews with the heads of Russian national and cultural societies and centres of the Republic of Tatarstan (in 2002) have allowed for the selection of the following problems: reduction of time allocated at schools to study of Russian; modern position of the Orthodox church in the republic; preservation of Russian traditional culture in villages; development in Republic of Tatarstan of professional creativity of Russian writers, musicians, artists; representation of Russian culture in mass media. In the article the estimation made by the experts of cultural politics of Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan is summarized, their opinions about ideal model of ethnocultural policy in a polyethnic society are generalized.
REFLECTION ON A BOOK
Savchuk V. The topicality of the "Nazi Myth"
This paper is a philosophical reflection on the book "Le Mythe Nazi" (1991) by Ph. Lacoue- Labarthe and J.-L. Nancy translated into Russian and prefaced by S. Fokin (St. Petersburg, 2002).
Ling L. Value Orientations of Chinese Young People under Conditions of Socialist Market Economy Construction
The paper analyses the impact of economic and political transformation on value orientations of Chinese young people. The progressive transformation of society is considered together with value dynamics. The management of harmonious coexistence of individualist and collectivist values makes the focus of attention. The clash of interests, though present, does not shake the stability of ideals; young people values do not contradict general social values. This accounts for unity of Chinese society.
NEWS / INFORMATION
Historical Science and Methodology of History in XXth Century Russia. To Academician A. Lappo-Danilevsky 140th Anniversary.
Presented are contributions made by participants of Conference "Historical Science and Methodology of History in XXth Century Russia. To Academician A. Lappo-Danilevsky 140th Anniversary" held in St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University on 21 April 2003.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Rodchenko K. Approaching Federalist Ideology
Zdravomyslova E. On B. Firsov´s "The History of Soviet Sociology in the 1950s- 1980s".
In Memoriam. Professor Gennady Batygin