SOCIOLOGY: PROFESSION AND VOCATION
Interview with Professor Vadim Radaev
Professor Vadim Radaev answers questions of JSSA editor V. Kozlovsky concerning his life and academic career.
Radaev V.Capturing the Market: Diffusion of the New Orgainizational Forms in Russian Retailing
Development of the new organizational forms in the Russian food retailing is analyzed from the standpoint of ecological approach in organizational theory. It is argued that diffusion of modern trading formats goes in waves which spread from the premium segments down to the mass market segments of FMCG market. As the first wave comes close to the bottom, the market is captured again in a similar downstream fashion. Though the new trading formats become increasingly specialized and more precisely defined in relation to specific groups of customers.
HISTORY OF RUSSIAN SOCIOLOGY
Zdravomyslov A.On Periodization of Russian Sociology
The article discusses the periodization criteria for Russian sociology. The author strongly opposes the view that soviet sociology of the 1960s emerged as a result of foreign methodology transplantation not embedded in Russian tradition of sociological thinking. He supports G. Batygin and V. Shubkin’s argument of the continuity of sociological thought in the process of Russian sociology formation which relies upon cultural and social capital reproduction.
SOCIOLOGY OF LAW
Maslovskaya E.National Schools and Leading Theoretical Traditions in Contemporary Sociology of Law
The article discusses the main national schools and leading theoretical traditions in contemporary western sociology of law. Approaches to analysis of the legal sphere in American sociology are characterized. The present situation in German sociology of law is evaluated. Special attention is paid to the sociolegal ideas of J. Habermas and N. Luhmann. The main approaches of French sociology of law are discussed, particularly P. Bourdieu’s concept of the juridical field.
Vardanyantz G.Legal Expectations and Legal Comfort: On Equilibrium of the Legal System
This article is inspired by a problem of voluntarism in contemporary Russian legislation. The answers are based on the theory of the law system equilibrium. The author discusses three regularities of the social genesis of Law: Succession, Evolution and Necessity while working out the conception of legal comfort.
SOCIOLOGY OF DEVIANCE
Khlopushin R.Social Control of Drug Addiction: A Model for Preventive Policy
Social control is the basic theoretical component of social regulation. In contrast to medicine, criminology, low or economy concepts of social control, where main target is elimination of deviance, in sociology the deviations are indicators of various public pathologies. Therefore, main target of social control in sociology is public health.
Lysova A.Aggression as a Factor of Physical Violence in Dating Relationships
Dating violence has not been studied in Russia adequately. The author draws her inferences from the analysis of the problem in Russia, international research and the results of international dating violence survey (IDVS) directed by M. Straus. First, much more female students in the study (72 ‰) than male students (51 ‰) perpetrated minor psychological aggression against a dating partner ("insulted", "yelled at partner", etc.). However the gender differences were not significant relating to severe psychological aggression ("destroyed something of partner’s", "call fat or ugly", etc.) even though females reported it more often than males. Second, we found significant positive correlation between psychological aggression and physical violence perpetration against a dating partner for males as well as for females. Third, results of logistic regression showed that each increase of 1 unit in psychological aggression by women increases the odds of physical violence perpetration 1.05, or 5 ‰. The direct causal path between psychological aggression and violence by men is at the border of the acceptable significant level which has been explained by some other factors mediating the influence of psychological aggression on violence against a dating partner.
Borodkina O., Kozlov A.HIV-infection Risks of Injecting Drug Users
The article deals with the problem of HIV-infection risks in the community of injecting drug users. The results of empirical sociological study of injecting drug users in 11 Russian cities are presented in the article. The authors analyze the social-demographic characteristics of injecting drug users and point that drug users follow risk practices of drug injection and risk sexual practices. Moreover the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and hepatitis among injecting drug users is also very low. Basing on their data the authors discuss the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS preventive programs and point that they are not sufficient.
Vasilyeva V., Torgunakova M. The Formation of Contemporary Ecological Thinking
The paper considers the social aspects of ecological problems and the process of formation and development of ecological thought and culture in modern Russia. It evaluates the state of this process in contemporary conditions and analyses the facts that make a positive or negative effect on the dynamics of research process. Taking into consideration the exploring facts which have an influence on the ecological culture, the work accentuates different methods of formation of ecological thought. We can trace the causation with various sides of social life. The main attention is paid to the ecological activities of the social institutions and their influence on the process of formation an ecological mentality of power structures of all levels. The authors of this paper suppose that the ultimate aim of this process must be a qualitative new thinking of a human place in the outward things. According to their opinion, this new thinking will promote the formation of a positive nature – conservative orientation of the most population in Russia.
Popkov V. Russian and Soviet Migration in Europe: A Comparative View
The article presents a comparative analysis of the exodus of emigrants from the
Russian Empire and Soviet Union. Only the first exodus may be attributed to the
Russian emigration. It began in 1918 within disintegrated Russian Empire and was
over with taking root of the soviet power in Russia. All the following emigrations
had become already "Soviet emigrations", so long as the country of exodus was
the Soviet Union. In the cultural aspect the second emigration was similar to
the first one, though it contained already soviet cultural features. The third and
the fourth emigrations consisted of the soviet people, who had got through their
socialization in a socialist country. The soviet people differed culturally from the
ones from the former Russian Empire. All four emigrations were connected with
the beginning, existence and disintegration of the Soviet Union. And this article
touches upon the problem of emigrations, which in some way are connected with
the beginning, existence and disintegration of the Soviet Union.
The article is aimed at defining the boundaries of emigration exodus from the Russian Empire and Soviet Union and at outlining the circumstances and conditions for the Russians abroad to become a cultural-political phenomenon and for modern Russian-speaking transnational space to appear to be the result of ethnic-national policy of the former soviet leadership and migratory policy of modern governments of the receiving countries.
Bespalov E.The Attitude of Parents to the Illegal and Harmful Internet Content
The results of qualitative research on the attitude of parents to the illegal and harmful Internet content including pornography, propaganda of drugs, appeals to violence, xenophobic materials, obscenities are discussed. Typical risk situations related to children' and adolscents' use of Internet are pointed: contacts with strangers in Internet and real meetings with them, publication of important personal information, Internet shopping, viruses, and spam.
Prokopenko Y.To what Extent are Russian Consumers Prepared for ELearning?
The article presents the results of the sociological research on the relevance of the distant learning for Russian education consumers. The author addresses the following questions: whether Russian consumers are prepared to study distantly; whether they are ready to use high information and communication technologies in their studies; whether E-learning is able to satisfy real demand for education? The analysis of the research data shows that nowadays the basic advantages of distant learning for Russian consumers are cost efficiency and access to elitist education.
NEWS / INFORMATION
Interview with Alexander Dolgin
Vadim Semenkov talks with Alexander Dolgin on the topic of his book "The Economy of Symbolic Exchange".
Round Table "Sociology and Economy of Culture"
The Round Table "Sociology and Economy of Culture" addresses the topic of Alexander Dolgin’s book "The Economy of Symbolic Exchange". It was organized by Vadim Semenkov at the Faculty of Sociology of St. Petersburg State University 14 June 2007.
NEW BOOKS ON SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
Ipsen-Pitzmeier Sabine, Kaiser Markus (Hg.) Zuhause fremd: Russlanddeutsche zwischen Russland und Deutschland. Bielefeld: transcript, 2006. — 426 S.
Schepanskaja T. Culture of the Road in Russian Mythological and Ritual Tradition in XIX–XX centuries. M.: Indrik, 2003. — 528 P.